• 20 SEP 17
    Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism: causes, symptoms and treatment

    Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism: causes, symptoms and treatment

    It is the hormonal disease that occurs as a consequence of the low production of thyroid hormones in the blood.

    The thyroid gland is shaped like a butterfly and is located in the front of the neck. It is responsible for producing the thyroid hormones, to carry them to the blood and to distribute them by the body.

    Thyroid hormones help maintain body temperature, the body’s energy production and the proper functioning of organs, muscles and brain.

    Relation to the weight

    It is known that there is a relationship between a person’s weight, metabolism and thyroid disease, because thyroid hormones regulate metabolism.

    The key is the energy balance, which reflects the difference between the amount of calories consumed and those used by the body. There are many factors that determine weight, and this type of disease is one of them, although the relationship between all the factors is very complex. There are many other components like proteins and chemical compounds that also produce energy expenditure and as a consequence, weight loss.

    It all depends on BMR, or Basal Metabolic Rate. If it is too high, the thyroid gland is hyperactive, so there is hyperthyroidism, so if you do not consume more calories than those consumed, weight loss occurs.

    And, conversely, if the BMR is too low, there is hypothyroidism, and if more calories are consumed than are spent, increase the weight. A good part of the weight gain in hypothyroidism is due to the retention of water and salt, so mainly weight gain will not be based on excess fat.

    Symptoms of hyperthyroidism

    If there is too much thyroid hormone, the body tends to accelerate so the most common symptoms in people suffering from hyperthyroidism are:

    • Nervousness
    • Sweating
    • Palpitations
    • Trembling of the hands
    • Anxiety
    • Difficulty to sleep
    • Too fine hair
    • Muscular weakness
    • Increased frequency when going to the bathroom
    • Unregulated menstrual flow

    Despite eating foods high in fat, you will continue to lose weight if you do not go to a doctor soon to treat this disease.

    It is very important if you detect these symptoms, go to a specialist since a self-assessment could lead us to the conclusion that it is simple stress.

    People who suffer from it

    This type of disease usually occurs in women, especially young people or if there is a history of the disease in their family.

    Examination and treatment of hyperthyroidism

    Once in the consultation with your specialist, the first thing you will do will be a physical examination to detect any abnormal lumps in the neck. You will control the reflexes, tremors in your hands and examine your eyes to see if they have any anomalies as well.

    Depending on the age, degree of illness and other medical conditions, your specialist could propose some treatments such as:

    • Antithyroid drugs: clogging the gland’s ability to produce the hormone.
    • Radioactive iodine: destroying the thyroid cells that produce the hormone. It is given orally. It is usually used in patients over 60 years of age
    • Surgery: removing the thyroid gland. Probably after the withdrawal of this, is usually hypothyroidism, which will be regulated by some type of supplement.
    • Beta blockers are medicines that block the action of the thyroid hormone in the body.

    Symptoms of Hypothyroidism

    Hypothyroidism occurs when hormone levels are low. The body works more slowly, so it will feel colder and you will notice more fatigue. You may even notice depression and constipation.

    High blood pressure and decompensated cholesterol or anemia, as well as arrhythmia, are other very common symptoms in this type of hormonal disease.

    The only way to detect the disease is by performing a blood test.

    People who suffer from it

    This type of disease is usually suffered by people who, in their family history, had suffered before and especially women, either when they are pregnant or in the stage of menopause.

    Children who are born with the disease, known as congenital disease, is also another of the most common causes.

    It is a disease that can affect fertility, so if you detect any symptoms that may induce hypothyroidism, do not hesitate to go to a specialist as soon as possible.

    Examination and treatment of hypothyroidism

    Hypothyroidism can not be cured, but it can be controlled by replacing the amount of thyroid hormone to have normal levels of thyroxine T4 and TSH.

    Periodic monitoring to control levels is the only way to have the disease more safely controlled. Everything always under the supervision of a specialist, of course.


    For hyperthyroidism as well as for hypothyroidism, the only solution is to go to a specialist in the hypothyroid gland, for which, in the unit of Endocrinology, at the Vithas Xanit International Hospital in Benalmadena, a specialist will perform a preliminary examination for the comprehensive care you need.

Dr. Radua Kamal Salah

Thank you for the kindness, good humour that you have shown as well as the wonderful food. This certainly helps to make a sick person feel better and have a speedy recovery.


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