One of the key surgeries in Nephrology is:
Surgery for renovasular surgery – angioplasty with stents
It is arterial hypertension which is responsable for the narrowing and the blocking of the arteries which carry the blood to the kidneys (arterial renal stenosis).
In the majority of cases patients suffering from high blood pressure have calcified plaque which deposits and accumulates in the arteries.
Fibromuscular dysplasia is another cause of renal artery stenosis – This is due to the growth or the development of abnormal cells in the walls of the arteries that lead to the kidneys.
The condition can be hereditary and occurs more frequently in women under the age of 50.
As the arteries narrow, less blood is circulated and the kidneys start to function as if the blood pressure were low. Hormones are secreted which cause the body to retain more salt and wáter, and the consequence is a rise in blood pressure.
Renal arterial hypertension is difficult to control with medication, and depends on the severity of the stenosis.
Recommended surgery for this condition: angioplasty with stent (vascular endoprosthesis).
The angioplasty consists of introducing a balloon with a catheter into a blood vessel. Once positioned in the obstructed artery, the balloon is inflated and the plaque which obstructs the artery is moved, in order that normal blood flow is resumed.
Either one or various stents can be positioned, and a small spring like tube is used which ensures that the artery remains open.
Type of surgery and anaesthesia
The coronary angioplasty is a minimally invasive surgery that can last several hours.
It is usually carried out under local anaesthesia.
Hospitalisation is generally between 24 – 48 hours.
Post Operative care
The angioplasty improves the renal arterial blood flow in the majority of patients. However, the outcome depends on where the blockage is located, the size of the arteries, and the level of obstruction. Therefore it is recommended to have periodic check-ups.